未達到和超越過的成功者

(從我的一個喜歡與尊敬的作家,賽斯 高汀)

當速度限制無關緊要之時。 總有人會開車與最高速要慢五英里。

而速度限制對另外那一輛車裡的那個駕駛人也沒太大的影響,不過他卻要跑得與最高速還更快七英里。

這兩位駕駛人的比較不是絕對的,它而是相對的。

一個未達到潛力的努力者,無論課程有多困難,他將只會得到一個C 的成績。 而一個按照現行標準來衡量自己的人將會找到一種獲得A成績的方法,即使他必須磨礪或努力的去超越過潛力來獲得更好成績。

當領導一個團隊之時,往往領導者會為了考慮背後趕不上的人而慢慢減速,這是很誘人的做法。但是,那些人只會減速更多,因為他們喜歡落後在那裡。 其實,如果你的目標是讓你的團隊進行到某個地方,那麼領導者更應該加快速度,而不是減慢速度。這樣後面那些人才會更加快的趕上來。

Ten Lessons Jim Collins Learned from Peter Drucker, Part 5 of 7

Sharing this article from Mr. Collins’ website because I admire both his and Peter Drucker’s work.

Foreword to the 50th Anniversary Edition of The Effective Executive

#7: FIND YOUR ONE BIG DISTINCTIVE IMPACT

When a friend of mine became the chairman of the board of trustees of a leading university, he posed a question: “How will I know I’ve done a great job?” I pondered what Drucker would say, and then answered: “Identify one big thing that would most contribute to the future of the university and orchestrate getting it done. If you make one distinctive contribution—a key decision that would not have happened without your leadership (even if no one ever credits you for your catalytic role)—then you will have rendered a great service.” Drucker applied this idea to his own consulting. When I asked him what he contributed to his clients, he modestly said, “I have generally learned more from them than they learned from me.” Then, pausing for effect, he added, “Of course, in each case there was one absolutely fundamental decision they would not have made without me.” What is your one absolutely fundamental contribution that would not happen without you?

#8: STOP WHAT YOU WOULD NOT START

The presence of an ever expanding to do list without a robust stop doing list is a lack of discipline. To focus on priorities means clearing away the clutter. Sometimes the best way to deal with a platter piled high with problems is to simply toss the entire pile into the trash, wash the platter, and start anew. Above all, we must not starve our biggest opportunities because we’re so busy throwing ourselves at our biggest problems and dwelling on past mistakes. Pivot from past to future, create forward, always ask, “What’s next?” Yet how to do this, when past problems clamor for our attention, when we live with the accumulated legacy of what came before? Drucker gives an answer in the form of a question, one of the most impactful in his arsenal: If it were a decision today to start something you are already in (to enter a business, to hire a person, to institute a policy, to launch a project, etc.), would you? If not, then why do you persist?

Ten Lessons Jim Collins Learned from Peter Drucker, Part 4 of 7

Sharing this article from Mr. Collins’ website because I admire both his and Peter Drucker’s work.

Foreword to the 50th Anniversary Edition of The Effective Executive

#5: PREPARE BETTER MEETINGS

The oft-repeated quip, “I’m sorry to write you a long letter, as I did not have time to write a short one” could be applied to meetings: “I’m sorry to imprison you in this long meeting, as I did not have time to prepare a short one.” Effective people develop a recipe for how to make the most of meetings, and they employ their recipes with consistent discipline. And while there are many varieties of good meeting recipes, just as there are many recipes for baking tasty cookies, Drucker highlights two common ingredients: preparation with a clear purpose in mind (“why are we having this meeting?”) and disciplined follow-up. Those who make the most of meetings frequently spend substantially more time preparing for the meeting than in the meeting itself. To abuse other people’s time by failing to prepare shorter, better meetings amounts to stealing a portion of their lives. And while we must all lead or join meetings, they should be limited to those that do the most useful work; if meetings come to dominate your time, then your life is likely being ill-spent.

#6: DON’T MAKE A HUNDRED DECISIONS WHEN ONE WILL DO

We’re continually hit by a blizzard of situations, opportunities, problems, incidents—all of which seem to demand decisions. Yes. No. Go. No-go. Buy. Sell. Attack. Retreat. Accept. Reject. Reply. Ignore. Invest. Harvest. Hire. It can feel like chaos, but the most effective people find the patterns within the chaos. In Drucker’s view, we rarely face truly unique, one-off decisions. And there is an overhead cost to any good decision: it requires argument and debate, time for reflection and concentration, and energy expended to ensure superb execution. So, given this overhead cost, it’s far better to Zoom Out and make a few big generic decisions that can apply to a large number of specific situations, to find a pattern within—in short, to go from chaos to concept. Think of it as akin to Warren Buffett making investment decisions. Buffett learned to ignore the vast majority of possibilities almost as background noise. Instead, he made a few big decisions—such as the decision to shift from buying mediocre companies at very cheap prices to buying great earnings machines at good prices—and then replicated that generic decision over and over again. For Drucker, those who grasp Buffett’s point that “inactivity can be very intelligent behavior” are much more effective than those who make hundreds of decisions with no coherent concept.

達到頂尖的距離

(從我的一個喜歡與尊敬的作家,賽斯 高汀)

做有些事,如果能夠進入一個保證精通的領域是很有吸引力的,在那種情況下你能有機會去比的上每一個人。

然而,事實已證明,最令人興奮和富有成效的領域,是在那些被認為頂尖人物和其他人有巨大差距的狀態。

因為當差距越大,能夠達到頂尖的獎勵就更高。

Ten Lessons Jim Collins Learned from Peter Drucker, Part 3 of 7

Sharing this article from Mr. Collins’ website because I admire both his and Peter Drucker’s work.

Foreword to the 50th Anniversary Edition of The Effective Executive

#3: WORK HOW YOU WORK BEST (AND LET OTHERS DO THE SAME)

If you’re a tool put here on this Earth to be useful, how does the tool best work? Some people work well at night; others work better in the morning. Some absorb information best by reading, others by listening. Some thrive in full-immersion, others work better in short bursts with variety in the day. Some are project oriented; others are process oriented. Some need vacations; others think the best part about vacations is that they end. Some prefer teams, whereas others produce much greater impact working alone. Per Drucker, we are wired for ways of working the same way we are right-handed or left-handed. I discovered early that I cannot exchange morning creative hours for afternoon creative hours (the morning ones are always better). Drucker gave me the confidence to calendar white space in the morning and to be belligerently reclusive during creative hours. No one but you can take responsibility to leverage how you best work, and the sooner you do, the more years you have to gain the cumulative effect of tens of thousands of hours well-spent.

#4: COUNT YOUR TIME, AND MAKE IT COUNT

Drucker taught that what gets measured gets managed. So, how can we possibly hope to manage our time if we don’t measure precisely where our time goes? Inspired by Drucker’s challenge, I’ve kept a spreadsheet with one key metric: the number of creative hours logged each day, with the self-imposed imperative to stay above a thousand creative hours a year. This mechanism keeps me on the creative march—doing research, developing concepts, and writing—despite ever-increasing demands for travel, team leadership, and working with executives. But you also have to make your time count. The “secret” of people who do so many difficult things, writes Drucker, is that they do only one thing at a time; they refuse to let themselves be squandered away in “small driblets [that] are no time at all.” This requires the discipline to consolidate time into blocks, of three primary types. First, create unbroken blocks for individual think time, preferably during the must lucid time of day; these pockets of quietude might be only 90 minutes, but even the busiest executive must do them with regularity. Second, create chunks of deliberately unstructured time for people and the inevitable stuff that comes up. Third, engage in meetings that matter, making particular use of carefully constructed standing meetings that can be the heartbeat of dialogue, debate, and decision; and use some of your think time to prepare and follow up.

Ten Lessons Jim Collins Learned from Peter Drucker, Part 2 of 7

Sharing this article from Mr. Collins’ website because I admire both his and Peter Drucker’s work.

Foreword to the 50th Anniversary Edition of The Effective Executive

#1: FIRST, MANAGE THYSELF

“That one can truly manage other people is by no means adequately proven,” Drucker writes, “But one can always manage oneself.” How can you possibly expect others to perform at the highest levels without first expecting that of yourself? Drucker lays out a law of organized performance: the ratio of a leader’s performance to those on his or her team remains constant; therefore, if you want the average performance of those around you to go up, you must first improve your own performance.

#2: DO WHAT YOU’RE MADE FOR

One of Drucker’s most arresting points is that we are all incompetent at most things. The crucial question is not how to turn incompetence into excellence, but to ask, “What can a person do uncommonly well?” This leads, inevitably, to a conclusion: your first responsibility is to determine your own distinctive competences—what you can do uncommonly well, what you are truly made for—and then navigate your life and career in direct alignment. “To focus on weakness is not only foolish; it is irresponsible,” challenges Drucker. Does Drucker’s “Build on strength” imperative mean never confronting our (or others’) deficiencies? Yes and no. It means that if you’re made to be a distance runner, don’t try to be a middle linebacker. At the same time, you must address deficiencies that directly impede full flowering of your strength. When Michael Jordan was reaching the end of his basketball career, he could no longer fly to the basket with the same height and power as when he was younger, so he began to build a strength he’d never previously had: a fade-away jumper. He eradicated a crucial weakness within his strength, turning his fade-away jumper into yet another Jordan-can-kill you-strength on the court. Do what you’re made for, yes, but then get better and better; eradicate weakness, yes, but only within strength.

Ten Lessons Jim Collins Learned from Peter Drucker, Part 1 of 7

Sharing this article from Mr. Collins’ website because I admire both his and Peter Drucker’s work.

Foreword to the 50th Anniversary Edition of The Effective Executive

If you are to read one book on executive self-management, it should be this, Peter Drucker’s definitive classic, The Effective Executive. It doesn’t matter the size of your organization, or even whether you run an organization at all. Anyone who has responsibility for getting the right things done—anyone who seeks how best to self-deploy on the few priorities that will make the biggest impact—is an executive.

The most effective among us have the same number of hours as everyone else, yet they deploy them better, often much better than people with far greater raw talent. As Drucker states early in these pages: people endowed with tremendous brilliance are often “strikingly ineffectual.” And if that’s true for the exceptionally brilliant, what hope is there for the rest of us? Actually, there is something much better than hope: Drucker’s practical disciplines.

I first read The Effective Executive in my early thirties, and it was a huge inflection point in my own development. Reading the text again, I’m reminded of how its lessons became deeply ingrained, almost as a set of commandments. Some of Drucker’s examples and language might be dated, but the insights are timeless and modern, as helpful today as when he wrote them more than five decades ago. Here are ten lessons I learned from Peter Drucker and this book, and that I offer as a small portal of entry into the mind of the greatest management thinker of all time.

技術技能,力量,和影響力

(從我的一個喜歡與尊敬的作家,賽斯 高汀)

當一件新技術到來時,你通常會看到一些書呆子樣或是科技粉絲去使用它。

其他人常常會想自己太忙碌而把這個新的媒介當作一個玩具,然後“回去工作”。

幾年後,理解這些工具的人變成為領導者。 因為“工作”已轉換到集中在那些其他人有機會學習但猶豫不決的東西上。

所以呢,那些擁有企業未來關鍵的角色由網絡程序員來扮演,或是那些生活在手機上的人,或者那些是在Photoshop和UI思維中茁壯成長的設計戰略家,很多未來由他們來決定去建立什麼或投資什麼…

從來沒有誰能保證那一個技術將會成為到談話的中心。 但是一定會有。因為它總是有。

The Elements of Decision-Making

The last and perhaps the most impactful aspect of an effective executive is making effective decisions.

Effective executives know that effective decision-making should lead to rational actions, but how do you do that?

Can decision-making be molded into a system, doing the right steps in the right sequence, which leads to taking the right action?

While there is no one perfect system that everyone should follow, Peter Drucker did suggest the following five decision-making elements in his book.

  1. Determine whether the problem was a generic situation or an exception that requires special handling.
  2. Determine the clear specifications as to what the decision must accomplish. Drucker called them the “boundary conditions.”
  3. The thinking through of what is “right” and what is “acceptable.”
  4. Building actions into the decision.
  5. Building the “feedback” into the decision for testing the validity and effectiveness of the decision.

Ultimately, Drucker felt that effective decision-making requires both procedure and analysis, but its essence is an ethics of action.

First Things First

While effective executives actively manage her time, her contribution, and the application of her strengths, she cannot be all things to all people.

She knows that executives must get many things done, and do them effectively.

There are just too many areas that require attention.

Instead, effective executives concentrate on the few major areas where superior performance will produce outstanding results.

The method is, therefore, concentrating on doing one thing at a time, and on doing first things first.

Sophisticated multitasking in the computer is just an appearance. For people, multitasking is just an illusion.

Peter Drucker asserted this in his book. “If there is any one “secret” of effectiveness, it is concentration.”